did you see this reply from above post:
Hey guys, I may have the answer. Not 100% sure but it looks promising.
In Stripe payments, there is a setting:
Payment Request Buttons
Payment Request Buttons Enable Payment Request Buttons. (Apple Pay/Chrome Payment Request API)
By using Apple Pay, you agree to Stripe and Apple’s terms of service.
If this setting is switched on (or ticked), the fields are not carried over into the order. Hopefully unticking this will resolve the issue.
Here is some info I found:
I will let you know if it has fixed the issue.